Lecture 2 Two distinct but related themes are considered: the mythology associated with Newgrange and the Boyne Valley and its relationship with archaeology, and whether elements of a Neolithic cosmology could survive thousands of years. The 2014 Rhind Lectures - Archaeology and Celtic Myth - an exploration These lectures are an exploration and their central premise is that elements of pre-Christian Celtic myth preserved in medieval Irish literature shed light on older traditions and beliefs not just in Ireland but elsewhere in Europe as well. This enquiry mainly focuses on aspects of the mythology associated with four well-known Irish archaeological landscapes: Newgrange and the Boyne Valley, and the royal sites of Rathcroghan in Co. Roscommon, Navan in Co. Armagh, and Tara in Co. Meath. The Rhind Lecturer John Waddell is Emeritus Professor of Archaeology in the National University of Ireland Galway. For over a decade and with the support of the Heritage Council, his research has focused on the royal site of Rathcroghan in western Ireland, a complex of archaeological monuments that figures prominently in early Irish literature. Recent publications include Foundation Myths. The beginnings of Irish archaeology (2005); Rathcroghan, Co. Roscommon. Archaeological and geophysical survey in a ritual landscape (2009) and in 2010 a revised edition of The Prehistoric Archaeology of Ireland. The 2014 Rhind Lectures were sponsored by Rubicon Heritage Ltd which attracted an Arts and Business Scotland New Arts Sponsorship Grant. The Rhind Lectures were also gratefully supported by The Consulate General of Ireland and the Royal Society of Edinburgh.